From February 13 to 22, the UF School of Theatre and Dance will perform a new drama entitled Gator Tales, an original play devised and directed by Professor Kevin Marshall in conjunction with the UF Samuel Proctor Oral History Program (SPOHP). This is the first time that interviews from the SPOHP collection have been adapted to a full-length theatrical production. Inspired by the unique experiences of African American students at the University of Florida, from the first students who attended more than 50 years ago to members of the current student body, Gator Tales dramatizes honored stories from SPOHP’s African American History Project archive. This live theatre performance brings vividly to life the voices of local people who struggled for civil rights and the generations that followed. Featured voices include:

by Justin Dunnavant, AAHP Graduate Coordinator

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the infamous march in Selma, Alabama and with the recent release of the movie “Selma,” we thought it would be appropriate to compile a digital exhibit highlighting the connections between UF and the Selma march. The following articles and images from the Alligator were donated by Mr. Dan Harmeling and are housed in the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program (SPOHP) in Pugh Hall.

In March of 1965, five UF students affiliated with the Freedom Forum on campus [Judie Harman, Lynn Dacey, Carrol Richardson, Dana Swann, and David Purviance] joined by Alligator photographer, Bob Ellison, traveled to Selma, Alabama to support the demonstrations. Four of the five students dropped out of university to attend. Their sentiments were reflected in a statement by the Freedom Forum secretary, Marilyn Sokolof.

We as students of the University of Florida, feel ashamed that such atrocities can go on within the United States. We feel we cannot sit by and just watch these things happen. That’s why some of us have gone to Selma.

-Marilyn Sokolof

On campus, the Student Group for Equal Rights (SGER) worked hard to educate students on campus about the situation in Selma. In solidarity with the Selma marchers, SGER organized a vigil march to the Federal Post Office in downtown Gainesville.

Click to view "SGER Mertin Luther King 'contact.'"
Click to read “SGER Mertin Luther King ‘contact.'”

 

Bob Ellison summarized his experience as a UF student and photographer in his front page article, “Selma: The Alligator was there.”

Click to read “Selma: The Alligator was there.”

 

The Alligator covered the unfolding events in Selma almost daily, events which sparked a volley of descent and rebuttal in their editorial section.

Click to read "Voice of the South."
Click to read “Voice of the South.”

Some spoke out strongly against the actions of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. reproaching him for “provoking” the violence brought upon the marchers. It was said that the relationships between blacks and whites in Alabama was generally peaceful and the town was unjustly scrutinized. Some even went as far as to say that many people in the deep South–blacks and whites–have never really been interested in voting.

In opposition to these statements, others wrote in support of the Selma marchers and the demonstrations. They defended the non-violent actions and accused the previous authors of victim blaming.

The events in Selma had national reverberations and students at the University of Florida became directly involved in the movement. For many African Americans in Florida, the voter discrimination, intimation and violence evident in Alabama were part of their day-to-day realities in Florida.

For additional information about this and other collections, contact SPOHP, call the offices at (352) 392-7168, and connect with us online today. For inquiries related to web content, e-mail Diana Dombrowski.

Award-winning PBS documentarian Churchill Roberts was a doctoral student at the University of Iowa in 1971 when he produced the first documentary film recounting events of the historic 1968 Memphis Sanitation Workers strike and assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Four decades after its original release, “Keep Your Trash” is now newly digitized and available on the UF Digital Collections through the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program and George A. Smathers Libraries.

Also available on YouTube:

Roberts became personally involved with the strike when he began working with a group called Memphis Search for Meaning Committee as a young graduate student, collecting footage and interviews about the strike shortly after Dr. King’s death.

In subsequent years, Churchill Roberts became an award-winning film maker and a prominent professor in the College of Journalism at the University of Florida. His films include, “Freedom Never Dies: The Legacy of Harry T. Moore” (2001), and “Negroes With Guns: Rob Williams and Black Power” (2006).

Thinking back over four decades after the making of “Keep Your Trash,” Professor Roberts recalls:

“The events in Memphis changed my life completely. Before attending Iowa, I had taught communication for a year in a vocational program funded by the Manpower Development Training Act, an act of Congress to help people at the bottom of the economic ladder, particularly minorities, develop job skills. Teaching in the vocational program made me realize how unfair society had been to the less privileged. Dr. King’s assassination brought a sense of urgency to the problem.

 

At Iowa, I took a course on race relations and focused my early research on the portrayal of minorities on television. Later, I had an opportunity to make several PBS documentaries about unsung heroes of the civil rights era.”

For more information, download and share the official press release.

Photo by Ernest C. Withers from Chrysler organization.

Local civil rights leader Reverend Thomas A. Wright died Tuesday. He was 94. Reverend Wright was the pastor of Mount Carmel Baptist Church in Gainesville. Read more from The Gainesville Sun, article by .

Professor Paul Ortiz
(Director, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program University of Florida)

Marna Weston (AAHP Coordinator)

By Ryan Morini, Jessica Lancia, and Marna Weston

The guide has been loosely organized around three basic themes. The first, “Racial Discrimination and Violence: Jim Crow and its Legacy in Florida,” includes clips that discuss clear instances of racial discrimination in various parts of north Florida. Some of these episodes take place before the Civil Rights Movement; others exemplify unspoken or de facto discrimination after the demise of the “separate but equal” doctrine. Examples also range from stark and outright violence to mundane examples of pressure and neglect. Although it is the second section that focuses on the role of black high schools in community affairs, schools are a consistent theme in this section as well, as black high schools under segregation were particularly potent hubs of community activity and solidarity. Two of the clips offer white perspectives on the racism of Alachua County; it is important not to restrict AAHP interviews to African-Americans alone, as the experiences of whites with the color divide can reveal aspects of the operations of racism that might not have been readily visible to the black community.

The second section, “Lincoln as a Metaphor for Community: The Integrating Role of Segregated Schooling,” includes clips that discuss the role of high schools in black communities under Jim Crow. Most of these clips discuss Lincoln High, the highly-respected black high school in Gainesville that was shut down during the move to integrate in 1970. Alumni associations from many of these area high schools—e.g. Lincoln in Gainesville, Mebane in Alachua, R.J.E. in Starke, Fessenden Academy in Ocala—continue to be very powerful organizing forces. Mebane High, for instance, holds an annual reunion on the weekend after Thanksgiving which is attended by hundreds of alumni, and includes a parade, sporting events, speakers and ceremonies, and so on. These well-attended events carry on the legacy of schools closed over 40 years ago, which speaks volumes about the importance of these institutions to a sense of community and of identity. There is an inherent ambivalence in that significance, of course, and that ambivalence emerges in many of the clips in this section: the same institution that bound the community together was also a constant symbolic and structural reminder of the political forces that kept it apart—and in thrall of—white society. The discussion of what was lost in integration is not merely a naïve or nostalgic longing for the era of segregation, but rather, a complex and difficult rumination on community achievements that have not been built upon, but rather lost to younger generations.

The third section, “People in the Limelight of the University of Florida, and People in its Shadow,” showcases some clips that discuss the role—or lack thereof—of UF in the affairs of the black community. It sometimes startles undergraduates to realize that UF was not a bastion of equality in the past, but was an active force in maintaining racial segregation (though this role was doubtless complex and merits deeper understanding in its own right). Some of these clips come from interviews conducted at the annual Association of Black Alumni (ABA) meetings, and many of the interviewees were among the first black students to graduate from the University of Florida. Each unique story speaks to broader truths—and challenges some accepted truths—about the race relations at UF during and after integration. These stories also speak to the disconnect between UF as an institution and community life—despite that many faculty would have maintained that they were opposed to racial discrimination, most members of the black community were largely isolated from UF affairs.

Please enjoy the brief stories contained here, but please also remember that they are just that: brief stories. This CD demonstrates the power of the growing AAHP collection, but no CD can fully convey the depth and richness of the archive that we are generating. AAHP is quickly producing a library of voices, and offering perspectives, experiences, and knowledge of the history of north Florida that would otherwise be unavailable to future generations. We hope that this CD gives some sense of the profound depth of the AAHP endeavor.


Racial Discrimination and Violence: Jim Crow and Its Legacy in Florida

Track 1: Leitha Nichols – “Perline” (AAHP-183, interviewed by Marna Weston)

In this clip, Leitha Nichols relates an incident she recalls from her youth in Putnam County when a young girl named Pearline disappeared. The incident occurred near the railroad tracks, which had ostensibly been a common pathway for black children; afterward, Ms. Nichols suggests that they took alternate routes. Of particular interest in this clip are the importance of safe means of travel, and the quotidian nature of violence (or the threat of it) under Jim Crow laws. In this sense, in addition to the historical reality of the narrative, the railroad tracks are an important trope that speak to issues of segregated space and place.

Date of Interview: January 19, 2009

Track 2: Laura Scott Reaves – Boy shot in the back (AAHP-017A, interviewed by Marna Weston)

 

In her interview, Laura Reaves recalls the brutality of racism in Perry, Florida—continuing with cross burnings in quite recent years. At the beginning of this clip, Ms. Reaves discusses the difficulty that blacks had in keeping their land, and the frequent burning of buildings that terrorized the community. She then describes an event in which a boy was shot in the back by a member of a white landowning family simply because he disliked the look on the boy’s face. She attributes the impetus for the killing to her belief that the boy’s face communicated defiance—“he was probably thinking, ‘when I get to be a man, I’m going to get you!” As a narrative trope, of course, being shot in the back speaks to cowardice and condescension; that Ms. Reaves recalls such lethal cowardice being unleashed on a mere boy is a truly profound statement on historic race relations in Perry.

Date of Interview: March 6, 2010

Track 3: Mamie Lee Leath – Picking potatoes (AAHP-202B, interviewed by Ryan Morini)

 

Mamie Lee Leath was born and raised in the Porter’s neighborhood of Gainesville; she can even point out the lot she was born on from the house she lives in today. In this clip, she recalls picking potatoes, and other crops, on fields that used to be near Lake Alice before the University expanded. Embedded in this discussion of labor and the greater value of every penny before inflation, one also finds the insinuation of 1940s racial politics. In particular, when the war broke out, Ms. Leath recalls the institutionalization of “vagrancy laws”—which amounted to the need for blacks to prove to the police that they had a job, and if they had none, they had to stay off the streets after certain hours. However, Ms. Leath also recalls agentive maneuvering on the part of black workers; they agreed to work the fields, but they demanded more reasonable payment. In this process, the money that she could earn by picking potatoes more than tripled.

Date of Interview: November 8, 2011

 

Track 4: Thomas Holland Fay – “John” (AAHP-166A, interviewed by Ryan Morini)

 

The Pleasant Street Historic District is recognized as a historically black neighborhood of northwest Gainesville; however, some neighborhoods on the south end of it were historically white. Tom Fay grew up and still lives in his family home in that south end; his family is one of the old families of Gainesville, and he grew up as a member of Gainesville’s white elite. However, Arredondo Street, the street in front of his house, was a main thoroughfare for black pedestrians to get to and from work. In this clip, he relates the story of one such black man who he knew only as “John.” It is telling that even as a member of the white elite, as a child he felt utterly helpless in the face of John’s predicament. In other parts of the interview, Mr. Fay discusses the enduring effect of John’s story on his life.

Date of Interview: March 23, 2011

Track 5: Gladys Thompson – Schools and segregation in Gainesville (AAHP-211, interviewed by Darrius Woods)

 

Gladys Thompson speaks here about several different issues related to schooling in Alachua County; one of the consistent themes is that of the continued segregation. Foreshadowing the ambivalence about Lincoln High that will become clearer in the next section (below), she relates that Lincoln was “the good old days,” but that schools in the county were only ever created for black children so as to keep white students from having to share space with blacks—including after integration.

Likewise, she relates an ambivalence whereby “maybe it took” slavery to build America, but now that it is built, it is “beautiful.” Ms. Thompson also recalls a courageous moment during a parents’ meeting just after integration in which she suggested publicly that it was “time for the Klan to take their hoods off.” This clip thus profoundly demonstrates the quotidian heroism of Gainesville residents, Ms. Thompson quite notably amongst them.

Date of Interview: November 8, 2011

Track 6: Monica Smith (with Donna Drake) – Garbage collection (AAHP-165, interviewed by Ryan Morini)

 

Monica Smith is a white woman who moved to Gainesville when her husband was hired by UF in the 1970s. She and Donna Drake are founding members of the Pleasant Street Historical Society, which was instrumental in getting the Pleasant Street neighborhood, a historic black neighborhood east of campus, onto the National Historic Register. Earlier in the interview, they explain that the national recognition came at a time when the city of Gainesville was attempting to drive out the Pleasant Street residents and gentrify and redevelop their lands. This particular clip demonstrates some of the mundane ways that racial discrimination recursively shaped structural violence—in this case, the point of contention was the collection of the garbage.

Date of Interview: March 12, 2011

Track 7: Patricia Stevens Due – Daughter “becoming white” (An Evening with the Dues [public program] – Feb 16, 2011)

Patricia Stevens Due, a prominent civil rights activist, was raised in segregated Florida. She joined the movement in 1960, as a student at Florida A&M University. In this clip, part of a public program held at UF, Due recounts her and her husband’s move from Quincy, FL to Miami, FL in search for a better school system for her child. This resulted in what she describes as the worst thing that happened to her after becoming a mother. Her daughter’s youthful misunderstanding of the nature of racial discrimination itself constitutes a profound critique of that same system.

Date of Interview: February 16, 2011

 

Lincoln as a Metaphor for Community: The Integrating Role of Segregated Schooling

Track 8: Portia Taylor – A sense of community (AAHP-168, interviewed by Ayana Flewellen)

 

An “outsider” to Gainesville, Portia Taylor grew up in North Carolina. She is the current vice president of student affairs at Santa Fe College. Her outsider’s perspective in some ways adds valuable perspective on the history of Gainesville; however, in this clip she describes the role of the high school in many black communities, her own merely being an example of a larger trend. Dr. Taylor’s description of her own experiences with high school and its role in her community are strikingly similar to the experiences of the black communities in Gainesville regarding Lincoln High. The discussion then moves into the daily and weekly rhythms that shaped community life.

Date of Interview: March 30, 2011

Track 9: Scherwin Henry – The meaning of Lincoln High (AAHP-174A, interviewed by Marna Weston)

 

Gainesville City Commissioner Scherwin Henry discusses his experience attending Lincoln High School, a segregated school in Alachua county, and Gainesville High School, an integrated school that used to be all white. It is notable that Gainesville high schools did not integrate until the 1970s, despite that the decision in Brown v. Board of Education was handed down in the mid-1950s. While segregated schooling is now looked upon disparagingly as a symbol of racial injustice, Commissioner Henry talks about Lincoln teachers instilling intellectual confidence in him, and describes a positive educational climate that fostered personal growth and development.

Date of Interview: May 12, 2011

 

Track 10: Thomas Coward – Teaching real history under segregation (AAHP-049, interviewed by Douglas Malenfant)

 

Thomas Coward is widely respected in the Gainesville community for his role as a teacher at Lincoln High; in this clip, he describes the challenges of teaching black students at a time when the role of African-Americans in American history was entirely excluded from the history book. Mr. Coward’s attempts to develop an ethical and inclusive curriculum met with resistance and suspicion from white supervisors—and it is worth taking note of the fact that although Lincoln High was an all-black school, whites were present as teachers and supervisors. This clip offers a glimpse into the expression of agency by a black teacher during segregation.

Date of Interview: June 5, 2009

 

Track 11: Charles Demps – Next to the dump, but the heart of the community (AAHP-193, interviewed by Ryan Morini)

 

Mr. Demps’s discussion of Lincoln High is a particularly powerful example of the ambivalence with which Lincoln was experienced by the black community in Gainesville. On the one hand, he explains that Lincoln was situated next to the city dump, and so student’s nostrils were assaulted daily with the scent of garbage. However, he also relates the diverse array of educational and vocational opportunities that were afforded by Lincoln, and goes so far as to describe Lincoln as a community institution—“like a church.” This clip is representative of the contradictions at play when a bastion of racial intolerance is also a bastion of community strength.

Date of Interview: October 4, 2011

Track 12: John C. Rawls – Going to, then teaching at, Lincoln High (AAHP-171, interviewed by Matletha Fuller)

 

John C. Rawls is another former teacher at Lincoln who is widely respected in Gainesville. In this clip, he describes going to Lincoln before he taught there, stressing the powerful impression that it left upon him. As a faculty member, Mr. Rawls felt that the distinguishing characteristic of Lincoln was the willingness to go “to the nth degree” to help students out. When students had issues, be they disciplinary, developmental, or otherwise, Mr. Rawls relates that teachers at Lincoln would work closely with both the student and his or her parents.

At the end of the clip, Mr. Rawls refers to the efforts of the Lincoln High Alumni Association to reinstate Lincoln as a high school, and suggests that teachers going to the nth degree is one of the qualities which the alumni association hopes to bring back. Thus, Lincoln’s legacy is not merely nostalgic or historical, but future-oriented.

Date of Interview: April 13, 2011

Track 13: Patricia Burnett – What was lost with Lincoln (AAHP-029, interviewed by Irene Cardozo)

 

In this clip, Patricia Burnett discusses the sense of injury and loss that was incurred when Lincoln High was closed down during integration. As with Charles Demps (above), she speaks of pride in some of the architectural elements, but she also consciously draws connections to other black high schools in the area. She thus speaks to the symbolic and ideological elements of both the community significance of Lincoln and other high schools, but also to the ways in which they were summarily, and paradoxically, shut down in the name of racial equality.

Date of Interview: June 2, 2010

Track 14: Albert White – Not taught, but educated (AAHP-022, interviewed by Marna Weston)

 

Mr. White, who is the current president of the Lincoln Alumni Association, again relates an understanding of the values and capacities which were lost with the closing of Lincoln. This clip is a fitting summary and closing for this subsection of the CD, as Mr. White touches upon and builds upon the themes raised in the other clips. While conceding a need for “progress” and change, Mr. White articulates a common sentiment heard in the AAHP collection—that something intangible, but invaluable to the community, was lost after integration. Lincoln instilled not merely a sense of community, but of identity, and it would appear that nothing in Gainesville has risen to take its place.

Date of Interview: May 25, 2010

People in the Limelight of the University of Florida, and People in its Shadow

Track 15: Sam Taylor – UF, the community, and the symbol of Virgil Hawkins (AAHP-077, interviewed by Dr. Paul Ortiz)

 

In this clip, Sam Taylor relates the very limited and symbolic contact which UF had with the black communities in Gainesville when he was growing up. Although some community members worked janitorial jobs at UF, he most particularly recalls going to the football games. Memories of the football stadium, where blacks had segregated seating in the south end zone, feature prominently in many other interviews in the collection. However, the University itself seems to have largely constituted a separate world from that of the black community.

Mr. Taylor also relates a second, memorable symbol from UF that he recalls from his childhood—Virgil Hawkins. Virgil Hawkins’ tireless efforts to integrate UF never succeeded in enabling Mr. Hawkins himself to matriculate, but every time he tried, and was denied, Mr. Taylor saw it as the “throwing down of a gauntlet” that led him to achieve considerable success in his own life.

Date of Interview: September 5, 2009

Track 16: Bernard Hicks – Selling Cokes to the Gators (AAHP-031, interviewed by Scott Wood)

 

Here, Bernard Hicks discusses the ways in which the segregated community of Gainesville, FL functioned while he was growing up. In part, he discusses the self-sufficient and non-consumer-oriented culture as allowing harmonious exchanges, and yet also describes a feeling of injustice when thinking about the material possessions that were unavailable to him because of his race. Mr. Hicks also ruminates on the segregation of a local park when he was a child—and it is notable that he relates that it was the white adults, and not white children, who enforced the segregation.

His memories of selling cokes at UF football games for money as a high schooler, and of the discrimination and outright violence he experienced, are poignant unto themselves, but all the more so when one realizes the deeper economic disparity at play: Mr. Hicks is selling sodas, a luxury drink, at a football game, an entertainment event attended by many affluent Florida alumni; yet he sells them not for spending money for himself, but rather to afford his Lincoln High yearbook, his cap and gown for graduation, and other necessary bits and pieces of community life. It is thus perhaps not surprising that his memories soon move him to recollect Flossie B. McLendon leading the Lincoln band in UF’s Homecoming parade despite not having been invited—once again, we see the strength of leadership and community affirmation that Lincoln High is still remembered for.

Date of Interview: June 8, 2010

Track 17: Madelyn Lockhart – UF faculty and the black community in the 1960s (UF-325, interviewed by Dr. Paul Ortiz)

 

In this clip, Dr. Lockhart relates that most UF faculty were disconnected from the Civil Rights Movement in Gainesville, and moreover that while some few attended symbolic marches and sit-ins, no faculty took interest in substantively improving the social and economic situation of members of the black community. (For instance, she relates that black schools had no playgrounds.) Dr. Lockhart explains that UF professors did not want to work closely or personally with the black community, and that she herself was reprimanded by neighbors for letting blacks visit her at her home.

This clip reminds us that to understand racism, we must understand it as a system which controlled the actions of whites as well as blacks—seeing the limits of the privilege of being white and economically well-off illuminates the contingencies and contradictions of that privilege.

Interviewed by: December 3, 2008

Track 18: Cranford Ronald Coleman – Death threats, adversity, and fellow athletes’ support (AAHP-138, interviewed by Ryan Morini)

 

C. Ron Coleman was the first black athlete on a scholarship at UF. In this clip, he begins by discussing the many death threats that he received for merely being offered a scholarship for track, and then explains that at the time he was aware of the threats from locals, but later became aware that even members of the Florida state legislature were attempting to oppose the scholarship. Thus, scale is sometimes deceiving; Mr. Coleman’s face-to-face experiences did not reveal the further-reaching legal and political scrutiny that he was subjected to.

In the next part of the clip, he relates a story in which famous UF football star Jack Youngblood singlehandedly ended the racism in the locker room by sitting down next to him at lunch. This story is exemplary in demonstrating the structural politics of everyday actions; merely sitting next to another athlete one day seems to have been enough to issue a paradigm shift that eased the racial tensions which Mr. Coleman had thus far experienced.

Date of Interview: September 4, 2010

 

Track 19: Evelyn Marie Moore Mickle – “The same people who invited me, invited me to leave” (AAHP-046, interviewed by Jason Horton)

 

Evelyn Moore Mickle was the first black student to graduate from UF’s nursing program. Rather than widely celebrating that achievement, for years she was reluctant to admit to people that she had graduated from UF. In this clip, she explains why. In light of the fact that Mrs. Mickle has been celebrated by UF as one of the “firsts”—i.e. one of the first black graduates—we must seriously consider the contradictions that inhere in popular narratives of success and vindication associated with pioneers of integration. While Mrs. Mickle’s travails decidedly do not detract from her achievements, they are also an integral part of those achievements, and must not be overlooked in telling her story. This clip has often left particularly strong impressions on UF undergraduates for the very reason that it disrupts the expected narrative of success.

Date of Interview: June 4, 2009

 

Track 20: Joseph McCloud – Cleaning up the dorms (AAHP-125, interviewed by Andre Everett)

 

In this clip, Joe McCloud describes an incident whereby he and some other black students in the early 1970s organized to help the custodial staff. There is inherently a power differential between college students who are not responsible for cleaning up the messes in their dorms, and the custodial staff who are responsible for the students’ messes. At UF, the custodial staff has historically been predominantly black, while the administration and student body have been predominantly white; thus, many people have seen a racial dynamic to this relationship at UF, in addition to the more obvious class dynamic. Earlier in the interview, Mr. McCloud describes remodeling the Black Student Union to mirror the organization of the Black Panthers.

The clip itself discusses student-led organizing on campus, as well as the positive effect that it had for the service staff, and then transitions to Mr. McCloud’s experiences with racism in Gainesville. It is hard today to imagine such powerful and effective student organizing arising spontaneously to defend the custodial staff; this clip, too, has often resonated with undergraduate audiences for that very reason.

Date of Interview: September 3, 2010

Please enjoy the stories contained here. This guide demonstrates the power of the growing AAHP collection, but no document can fully convey the depth and richness of the African American experience in Florida. AAHP is producing a library of voices, and offering perspectives, experiences and knowledge of the history of so that they can be available to future generations. We hope that this guide gives some sense of the generosity and resilience of African Americans in the South.

To receive a copy of this guide and audio CD in the mail, contact AAHP coordinators today.


back to AAHP Resources

For additional information, contact SPOHP, call the offices at (352) 392-7168, and connect with us online today.

july 2014 aahpcd2Professor Paul Ortiz
(Director, Samuel Proctor Oral History Program University of Florida)

By Ryan Morini, Justin Hosbey, Anna Jimenez, and Toni-Lee Maitland

This guide is organized around three themes. The first theme, “Education,” includes clips that discuss the educational experiences of African American children from North Central Florida during the Jim Crow era. Narratives discuss the ways that children experienced racialization, and even racial violence from both white peers and adults. Schools are a very salient presence in many AAHP interviews, as black primary and high schools under segregation were particularly potent hubs of community activity and solidarity. Many interviews explore the social transformations that occurred after the integration of schools, and the community ruptures that were created when segregated African American schools were closed.

The second theme, “Segregation of Public Facilities,” explore both de facto and de jure segregation, offering insight into the cultural politics of racial segregation in public spaces. The way African Americans were forced to navigate their bodies in both geographic and cultural spaces are articulated in several of the included interviews. These interviews uncover the spatial dimensions of racial discrimination, exploring the ways that allocations for public works and infrastructure for towns and cities in North Central Florida and Alabama were often determined by where one stood on the color line. The specter of racial violence was ubiquitous, and these narratives provide first-person accounts of the proxemics of white racial domination in the Jim Crow South.

The final theme, “Resistance,” speaks to ways that African Americans fought back against racism, repelling racial indignities and invoking their rights as citizens to access public resources. The mobilizations that culminated in the Tallahassee Bus Boycott are the focus of one particularly insightful interview.  This narrative reveals vital history about a boycott that was contemporaneous to the more well-known Montgomery Bus Boycott. Another interview speaks to the strategies that African American parents gave their children to buffet anti-black racial stereotypes and promote positive black identities. A final interview also speaks to the connections between the St. Augustine Movement, and civil rights activism in Gainesville.


Track 1: Oliver Jones– School Bus (AAHP-009)

Oliver Jones was born in Pensacola, Florida but raised in Gainesville where in 1921 his father, A. Quinn Jones, accepted a job offer as the principal of Union Academy, the first black school established in Gainesville. Mr. Jones worked as an educator throughout his life, much like the rest of his family members. He worked as a teacher at Lincoln High School, where his father served as the principal and was involved in the religious community, working as an associate superintendent to a Sunday school.

Mr. Jones talks about his life as the son of a principal and well-respected man in his community and of his own accomplishments. This portion of the interview also focuses on Mr. Jones’s perceptions of the changes in white Gainesville’s attitudes towards African Americans over time.

Date of Interview: January 28, 2010

Track 2: Joseph W. Welch– Microscopes (AAHP-303, interviewed by Ryan Morini)

Joseph W. Welch was born in Gainesville, FL and grew up in Porters, a historically black neighborhood in East Gainesville where blacks were confined during segregation. Mr. Welch grew up dealing with segregation and prejudice, despite some good experiences interacting with other people of different races. He attended Lincoln High School in his youth and eventually went on to work with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Congress of Racial Equality, and as a teacher at Mebane and Newberry high schools.

In this interview, he discusses Gainesville’s past as a segregated city in the context of his personal history and life experiences. He explains how the “separate but equal” ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court was a myth when it came to providing educational and career opportunities for African Americans in Florida.

Date of Interview: April 29, 2013

 

Track 3: Albert White- Closing of Lincoln High (AAHP-022, interviewed by Marna Weston)

Albert White is an educator, entrepreneur, and a community leader. He was born and raised in Gainesville, FL in the Porters neighborhood in East Gainesville, which is an historically black neighborhood. He attended all-black Lincoln High School in the early 1960s and attended the historically black North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina. In the early 1970s, he returned to Gainesville with his wife to attend graduate school at the University of Florida at a time when racial tension was at one of its many peaks.

His interview generally consists of his recollections of his and his family’s life in Gainesville, and in this excerpt, Mr. White discusses the negative effects integration had on the legacy and future of Lincoln High School. He also delves into the consequences of fighting institutionalized racism at UF and A&T.

 Date of Interview: May 25, 2010

Track 4: Mary Hall Daniels- Walking to School (AAHP-248B)

The Rosewood Massacre occurred in Levy County, Florida in January 1923. The massacre began when unsubstantiated rumors spread that a black man had assaulted a white woman. These rumors outraged groups of whites who initiated a campaign of mass murder and destruction of black businesses and residences in the area. African American survivors hid in the swamps the remaining days and left town. Some of the Rosewood refugees moved their families to Gainesville.  One of these survivors was Mary Hall Daniels.

In this clip, Mrs. Daniels tells of the segregation she faced in Gainesville. She describes her everyday experiences as she walked with her brothers to school.

Date of Interview: February 21, 2012

 

Track 5: Charles Demps-Lincoln High School (AAHP-193)

Lincoln High School was viewed with great pride in Gainesville’s African American community. However, as this remembrance from Mr. Demps attests, the school faced enormous obstacles in educating students. He explains that white officials placed Lincoln next to the city trash dump. Thus, the student’s nostrils were assaulted daily with the scent of garbage. However, he related that Lincoln—it’s parents, teachers and administrators–provided a diverse array of educational and vocational opportunities. Mr. Demps describes Lincoln as a community institution, “like a church.”

Date of Interview: October 4, 2011

 

Track 6: Evelyn Marie Moore Mickle –Challenges of “Integration” (AAHP-046)

Mrs. Evelyn Moore Mickle was the first black student to graduate from UF’s nursing program. Her narrative challenges our ideas of on the success of “educational integration” because she faced racism while at UF and was not accepted as a legitimately qualified student by some of her peers and professors.

In the wake of her successful professional career it is important to remember that Mrs. Mickle’s courageous educational experiences of suffering and triumph were shared by countless African Americans who had the courage to be “firsts” in their respective high school, college, and vocational school cohorts. In a sense, “Integration” in the wake of Brown v. Board did not signal a clear victory. Rather, it opened new possibilities and pathways of struggle for African Americans.

Date of Interview: June 4, 2009

Track 7: Mamie Leath– Vagrancy Laws and Potatoes (AAHP-202B)

 

Vagrancy laws were designed to keep wages low and job opportunities limited for black workers during segregation. Mami Lee Leath was born and raised in Porter’s neighborhood of Gainesville; she can point out the residential lot she was born on from the house she lives today. In this clip, she recalls picking potatoes and other crops in the fields near Lake Alice before the University expanded. As well as a discussion of labor and the value of money, one also finds the import of 1940s racial politics. When the war broke out, Ms. Leath and African Americans in Gainesville were targeted by vagrancy laws which gave area police tremendous power over black workers.

Date of Interview: November 8, 2011

 

Track 8: Monica Smith—Urban Renewal (AAHP-165)

Monica Smith was born in Germany. She survived World War II in Europe and later experienced the Watts Rebellion in 1965 in Los Angeles, before moving to Florida. She discusses a common enemy that African Americans faced across the country in the 1960s and 70s: urban renewal, a discriminatory public policy that African Americans wryly referred to as “Negro Removal.” Gainesville’s black community has waged its own struggle with the forces of urban renewal as well as gentrification.  In response to the city’s planned demolition of primarily black housing in West Gainesville, African Americans and their relatives from across the country organized in an effort to save their neighborhoods from destruction.

Date of Interview: March 12, 2011

 

Track 9: Isaac Chandler, Jr. – Segregation and Life in Jasper, Florida (AAHP-004A)

In this clip, Isaac Chandler, Jr., a native from Jasper, Florida talks about his life experiences during and after segregation. He explains how he never thought he would see desegregation in Jasper. Additionally, Mr. Chandler explains that during desegregation, white building owners refused to install bathrooms in the black part of town out of pride and principle.

 

Track 10: Oliver Jones– Segregation’s Dirt Roads (AAHP-009)

In this clip, Oliver Jones talks about the long walks he had to take on dirt roads in back neighborhoods. This made even simple tasks more complicated.

 

Track 11: Judge Samuel Stafford– Roads and Segregation (AAHP-050)

Samuel Stafford was born and raised in Tallahassee during the tail end of the Jim Crow Era. In this clip Professor Stafford recalls the long walks he took with his father during his childhood in Tallahassee as black people were not allowed to be on Florida State University campus. He describes the long walks and detours he and his family were forced to take, due to the gauntlet intolerance in Tallahassee, just to avoid crossing through campus. These racial experiences eventually lead his path to becoming a lawyer. Professor Stafford became a State Supreme Court Certified Arbitrator and professor in the Political Sciences department at University of Florida.

Date of Interview: June 11, 2009

 

Track 12: Reuben Brigety– Colored Laundry (AAHP–040)

Reuben Brigety was among the first African-Americans to enroll in the University of Florida at a time when racial tension created a climate conducive to violent prejudice and struggle in Gainesville, FL. He attended Morehouse College for medical school and came to the University of Florida in 1965 for graduate studies. In the interview he talks about his experiences as a Gator and what inspired him to want to attend the university. In this specific clip, he describes his lowest point as a resident of Gainesville, Florida which reminded him that he still faced obstacles despite his great accomplishments.

Date of Interview: February 7, 2009

 

Track 13: Ronald Colman– Tuscaloosa, Alabama Away Game (AAHP-138)

Ronald Colman was born in Ocala, Florida. He was the first African American athlete of the University of Florida in 1968. In this clip, he recalls one of numerous racist threats he received during his college career as member of the track and field team. This story took place at a restaurant in Tuscaloosa, Alabama after a competition.

Date of Interview: September 4, 2009

 

Track 14: Mary Ola Gaines­- Tallahassee Bus Boycott (BTV–052)

During the Jim Crow era of American History Florida cities including Tallahassee were segregated and wrought with racial tension. Mary Ola Gaines fought white supremacy during the entire half century she lived in Tallahassee. Originally from Georgia, Ms. Gaines came to Tallahassee in the late 1930s when she was around the age of twenty. She was an organizer in the historic 1955 Tallahassee Bus Boycott and a close ally of legendary civil rights movement leader, Rev. C.K. Steele of Bethel Baptist church.

In this excerpt, she explains the time she refused to give up her seat on a bus while she rode with some white children she was caring for at that time. Some African American women in Tallahassee were refusing to move to the back of the bus even before Rosa Park’s more famous refusal occurred in 1955.

Date of Interview: August 1, 1994

 

Track 15: Margaret Block– Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (MFP-006B)

Margaret Block has been an organizer in the Black Freedom Struggle since her youth coming of age in the Mississippi Delta. She is the younger sister of Sam Block, a civil rights icon, and a notable veteran of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) alongside Fannie Lou Hamer. Ms. Block worked as a field secretary for SNCC in the early 1960s and was recently honored with the Freedom Spirit of the Flame Award by the Freedom Foundation in Selma, Alabama. She is recognized as a Hall of Fame activist because she spent the majority of her life fighting for social justice.

In this interview, she talks about her time as an activist and her involvement in SNCC. While non-violent direct action was a philosophy espoused by the movement, black southerners often had to resort to armed self-defense in order to protect civil rights activists as well as their own families from white supremacist violence.

Date of Interview: March 20, 2011

 

Track 16: Reverend T.A. Wright– Civil Rights in St. Augustine & Gainesville (FAB-040)

Reverend T.A. Wright talks about the path that led him to become a leader in Gainesville’s Civil Rights movement in the 1960s.  Rev. Wright lived with his wife, Affie Wright, in Saint Augustine and was pastor at Saint Mary’s Baptist Church. However, due to his leading role in the St. Augustine Movement, white supremacists threatened to kill Rev. Wright. He was later offered a position at Mount Carmel Baptist Church and led the Gainesville National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) where he was president for seventeen years.

Date of Interview: January 23, 1986

 

Track 17: Dennis Flannigan– Mississippi Race Relations and Ms. Fannie Lou Hamer (MFP-008)

Originally from Tacoma, Washington, Dennis Flannigan traveled down to Mississippi in 1964 to become involved in the Civil Rights movement. He joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and participated in the Freedom Summer initiative to help African Americans become registered voters. He also worked with Fannie Lou Hamer, a leader in the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party who provided him a place to stay in her home when he first arrived in Mississippi.

In this interview, Mr. Flannigan discusses his involvement and experiences as a participant in the Civil Rights Movement. He discusses the challenges in the Mississippi in regard to race relations as well as the legacy of Ms. Hamer as a Civil Rights icon.

Date of Interview: September 12, 2008

 

Track 18: Laura Scott Reaves– Perry, Florida: Shot in the Back (AAHP-170)

In her interview, Laura Reaves recalls racism in Perry, Florida, continuing with cross burnings in recent years. Ms. Reaves discusses the region-wide phenomenon of black land loss, and the terrorist burning of buildings designed to strike fear into the black community.  She then describes an event in which a boy is shot in the back by a member of a white landowning family because he disliked the look on the boy’s face.

Date of Interview: March 6, 2010

 

Track 19: Laura Dixie– Back Door (AAHP-066)

 

Laura Dixie, founding president of the American Federation State County of Municipal Employees in Tallahassee and an organizer of the Tallahassee Bus Boycott, tells an anecdote of her childhood. A white lady asked Mrs. Dixie’s mother if she could hire Laura to work for her. Laura Dixie’s mother agreed upon the condition that her daughter be allowed to enter her employer’s house through the front door. Additionally, Mrs. Dixie tells that during her work time at the white woman’s house, she survived domestic abuse and fled the house and never went back to work.

Date of Interview: July 22, 2009

 

Track 20: Sherry DuPree- Blacks and Education. A Shooting at Fernandina (AAHP-060A)

Sherry DuPree began researching the Rosewood massacre in the 1970s while she worked as a librarian at the University of Florida. Gainesville is approximately sixty miles away from the town of Rosewood. Studying the massacre helped Ms. DuPree to become further involved in African-American history in the state of Florida. As a Smithsonian fellow, she set up an exhibit about the Rosewood massacre to further educate people about this gruesome occurrence of injustice and violence.

In her interview, she talks about her family history and her involvement with Florida’s education system and the problem of segregation in the South in contrast with the North. This particular clip features Ms. DuPree discussing a case where a young, unarmed black was shot in Fernandina Beach, Florida about forty times while in his car. The details of this case are poignant and relevant today.

Date of Interview: June 17, 2009

 

Track 21: George W. Allen–Virgil Hawkins & Protesting Segregation at UF (AAHP-290)

George Allen was born in Sanford, Florida. He was the first African American to attend the Fredric G. Levin College of Law (then the University of Florida College of Law). Mr.  Allen felt it was his duty to integrate the University of Florida and make a change in the education system of Florida. Therefore he declined the possibility of attending law school out of state (he had been accepted at Harvard Law and the University of California at Berkley.)

George Allen not only integrated the Levin School of Law in 1960, he also integrated the Ben Hill Griffin football stadium by organizing a group of black students and people from the community to attend the games. In this clip, George Allen talks about the events he was part of during the Civil Rights movement in Tallahassee such as tilting a bus and attending the Virgil Hawkins case at the Supreme Court.

Date of Interview:  November 29, 2012

Please enjoy the stories contained here. This guide demonstrates the power of the growing AAHP collection, but no document can fully convey the depth and richness of the African American experience in Florida. AAHP is producing a library of voices, and offering perspectives, experiences and knowledge of the history of so that they can be available to future generations. We hope that this guide gives some sense of the generosity and resilience of African Americans in the South.

To receive a copy of this guide and audio CD in the mail, contact AAHP coordinators today.


back to AAHP Resources

For additional information, contact SPOHP, call the offices at (352) 392-7168, and connect with us online today.

The African American History Project currently lists 300+ oral history interviews online. Audio and interview transcripts can be accessed in the SPOHP offices. Supporters can donate to the Share A Story Campaign to contribute to processing this collection.

[left]

  • AAHP001             Rosa B Williams
  • AAHP002             GWER PANEL
  • AAHP003             Joe S. Dell
  • AAHP004A          Issac Chandler, Jr.
  • AAHP007            Anna Skinner
  • AAHP008            Mack Mizell
  • AAHP009            Oliver Jones
  • AAHP010A          Christine Holmes
  • AAHP010B
  • AAHP011A          Arnold Mitchell
  • AAHP011B
  • AAHP012            Paul Cohen
  • AAHP014            Lamell Vickers
  • AAHP015A          Otto Olsen
  • AAHP015B
  • AAHP015C
  • AAHP016             Ethel Williams
  • AAHP017A           Laura Scott Reaves
  • AAHP017B
  • AAHP017C
  • AAHP018             Virgil Hayes
  • AAHP019             Atkins Warren
  • AAHP021             Roberta Lopez
  • AAHP022             Albert White
  • AAHP023             Deloris Johnson
  • AAHP024             David Richardson
  • AAHP025             Isaac Jones
  • AAHP026             Brenda Washington
  • AAHP027             Linda Butler
  • AAHP028             Margaret Sharp
  • AAHP029             Patricia Burnett
  • AAHP030             Alvin Butler
  • AAHP031             Bernard Hicks
  • AAHP032             Earl Williams
  • AAHP033             Jeff McMeekin
  • AAHP034             Mary Moore
  • AAHP036             George Allen
  • AAHP043             Andrew Mickle
  • AAHP044             Jean Chalmers
  • AAHP045             Rosa Williams
  • AAHP046             Evelyn Mickle
  • AAHP047             Willie Mayberry
  • AAHP048             Mildred Hill-Lubin
  • AAHP049             Thomas Coward
  • AAHP051             Marna Weston
  • AAHP052             Paul Pedro Ortiz
  • AAHP053             Alonzo Felder
  • AAHP054             Patricia Hilliard Nunn
  • AAHP055             Paul Andrew Ortiz
  • AAHP058A          Gwendolynn Zoharah Simmons
  • AAHP058B
  • AAHP059             Doris Manning
  • AAHP060A          Sherry DuPree
  • AAHP060B
  • AAHP061             Joel Buchanan
  • AAHP064             Clarence Pollard
  • AAHP065             Isaiah Branton
  • AAHP066             Laura Dixie
  • AAHP067             Deborah Moss
  • AAHP068             Retha Mae Foxworth
  • AAHP069             Jimmy Bobbit
  • AAHP070             Yvonne Hinson
  • AAHP071             Jerricka Gunter
  • AAHP072             Warren McCluney
  • AAHP073             Diana Bell
  • AAHP074A          Keith Yarbrough
  • AAHP074B
  • AAHP075             Westanna Bobbit
  • AAHP076             Stephanie Pollard
  • AAHP077             Samuel Taylor
  • AAHP078             Tonyaa Weathersbee
  • AAHP079             Kristen Yarbrough
  • AAHP080             Carlton Grant
  • AAHP081             Carnell and Jettie Henderson
  • AAHP082             Hazel Gordon
  • AAHP083             Alma B. Russ
  • AAHP092             Alice Hayes
  • AAHP093             Willette Walker
  • AAHP094             Richard Black
  • AAHP095             Treva Walker
  • AAHP096             Jimmy Pittman
  • AAHP097             Sarah McCray Hall
  • AAHP098             Estic Rollings
  • AAHP099A          Horace McLeod
  • AAHP099B
  • AAHP100             Drew Frazier
  • AAHP101             Willie Hightower
  • AAHP121             Jackie Ayers
  • AAHP122             James and Michelle Miller
  • AAHP123             Eugene Pettis
  • AAHP124             Clarence Brown
  • AAHP125             Joseph McCloud
  • AAHP126             Jaquelyn Williams Jones
  • AAHP127             Tara Miller
  • AAHP128             Alicia Golden
  • AAHP129             Rachel Nickie
  • AAHP130             Jerome Josey
  • AAHP131             Andre Gainey
  • AAHP132             Kenya McClain Ellis
  • AAHP133             Allen Cusseaux
  • AAHP134             Henry Lewis
  • AAHP135             Katesha Riley
  • AAHP136             Kelvin Henry
  • AAHP137             Dwayne Shaw
  • AAHP138             Cranford Ronald Coleman, Jr.
  • AAHP139             Steven Goodrich and Sikita Goodrich
  • AAHP140             Michael Ashby
  • AAHP141             Gerald McGill
  • AAHP142             Madeline Gervine McCloud
  • AAHP143             Tamya Smith and others
  • AAHP144             Thelma Welch
  • AAHP145             Beatrice Certain
  • AAHP146A          Roger King
  • AAHP146B
  • AAHP148             Herbert Jones
  • AAHP149             Daniel Gainey
  • AAHP150             Marie Calhoun
  • AAHP151A          Charles Moore
  • AAHP151B
  • AAHP152             Cassandra Davis
  • AAHP153             Anna Baines
  • AAHP154             Walter Arnold III
  • AAHP155             Verdell Robinson
  • AAHP156             Glynnell Presley
  • AAHP157             Bernice Presley
  • AAHP158             Martha Harris
  • AAHP159             John Mayo
  • AAHP160             Dessie Robinson
  • AAHP162             Mae Islar
  • AAHP163             Yasmin Small
  • AAHP164             Elsa Frederic
  • AAHP165             Monica Smith
  • AAHP166A          Thomas Fay
  • AAHP167             Dr. Gladys Spence Wright
  • AAHP168             Portia Taylor
  • AAHP169             Emory Harris
  • AAHP170             Carolyn Palmer
  • AAHP171             John Rawls
  • AAHP173A          Cornelius Clayton
  • AAHP173B
  • AAHP174A          Scherwin Henry
  • AAHP175A          Ceola Watkins
  • AAHP176             Nkwanda Jah
  • AAHP177             Dr. Lawrence C. Goodwyn
  • AAHP180             Alethia Viola Brown
  • AAHP181             Florida Bridgewater Alford
  • AAHP182             Jane Adams
  • AAHP183             Leitha Nichols
  • AAHP184             Rebecca and Nathaniel Hall
  • AAHP185             Yvonne Robinson
  • AAHP186             Deborah Sims
  • AAHP187             Melverine Morris
  • AAHP188             Mary Alice Jenkins
  • AAHP189             Henry Wade
  • AAHP190             Valara Petteway
  • AAHP191
  • AAHP192             Brittany O’Neil
  • AAHP193             Charles Demps
  • AAHP194             Ellen Jordan
  • AAHP195A          Janie Williams
  • AAHP196             Richard McClellan
  • AAHP197A          Mary Lee Myrick
  • AAHP197B
  • AAHP198             Isaac Jones
  • AAHP199             Clara Griffin
  • AAHP200             Billy Harvey
  • AAHP201             Rodney Long
  • AAHP202A          Mamie Leath
  • AAHP202B
  • AAHP203             Patricia Curry
  • AAHP204             Hubert Curry
  • AAHP205             Elijah Lewis
  • AAHP206             Virginia Hayes[/left]

[right]

  • AAHP207             Brenda Whitfield
  • AAHP208             Levonia King
  • AAHP209             Barbara Sharpe
  • AAHP211             Gladys Thompson
  • AAHP212             Alberta & Beverly Rivers
  • AAHP213             Eyvonne Andrews
  • AAHP214             Ceola Watkins
  • AAHP215             Eugene Leaths, Sr.
  • AAHP216             Clifford Hudson
  • AAHP218             Mable Robinson
  • AAHP219             George Young III
  • AAHP220             Sharon Burney
  • AAHP221             Ervin Fleming
  • AAHP222             George Washington
  • AAHP223             Bryan Williams
  • AAHP224             Lewis Flagler
  • AAHP225             Ryan Morini
  • AAHP226             Kali Blount
  • AAHP227             Carl Henry Rentz
  • AAHP228             Nkwanda Jah
  • AAHP229             Marna Weston
  • AAHP230             Johnny Fair
  • AAHP231             Claudia Rawls
  • AAHP232             Otis Stover
  • AAHP233             Jan Lawson
  • AAHP234             Lois Harris
  • AAHP235             Gracie Williams
  • AAHP236             Harry Shaw
  • AAHP237             Brooker Dwayitan
  • AAHP238             Carlton Davis
  • AAHP239             Pauline Lawrence
  • AAHP240             Bettye Stanford, Gloria Purnell & Martha Franklin
  • AAHP241             Deanna Reed George
  • AAHP242             Claretha Bradley
  • AAHP243             Frances Wilson
  • AAHP244             Leroy Joseph George II
  • AAHP245             Gwendolyn Williams
  • AAHP246             Ashley Parnell
  • AAHP247             Bettie Blakely
  • AAHP248A          Mary Hall Daniels
  • AAHP248B
  • AAHP249             Lurie & Brian Favors
  • AAHP250             Peter Wood
  • AAHP251             LaKay Banks
  • AAHP252             Isaiah Branton
  • AAHP253             Hermi Sherman
  • AAHP254             Whitney Battle-Baptiste
  • AAHP255             Cassie Williams & Milfred Barnett
  • AAHP256             Jerome & Juanita Mack
  • AAHP257             Linda Lowery
  • AAHP258             Lexington Blair
  • AAHP259             Ella Mae Driskell
  • AAHP260             Linda Kimbrough
  • AAHP261             Andra Williams
  • AAHP263             Robert L. Coleman
  • AAHP265             Byllye Avery
  • AAHP266A          Gladys Perkins
  • AAHP266B
  • AAHP267             Lee J. Price
  • AAHP268             Carmen & Kenneth Dennis
  • AAHP269             James D. Miller
  • AAHP270             Bobby Watson
  • AAHP271             Benny Goodman
  • AAhP272              Hazel Armbrister
  • AAHP273             Jason Yulee
  • AAHP274             Vendarae Lewis
  • AAHP275             Jordon Corbett
  • AAHP276             Elizabeth Davis
  • AAHP277             Eugene Gainey
  • AAHP278             Freddie Hickmon
  • AAHP279             Dolores McCullough
  • AAHP280A           Jefferson Rogers
  • AAHP280B
  • AAHP282             Thomas Coward
  • AAHP284             Henry & Mattie Leath
  • AAHP285             Rufus Brooks
  • AAHP286             Rosa Rutledge
  • AAHP287             Barbara Ann Smith
  • AAHP288             Cornelius Towns
  • AAHP289             Gregory Pelham
  • AAHP290             W. George Allen
  • AAHP291             Verna Jackson Johnson
  • AAHP292C           Isaiah Branton
  • AAHP293             Antoinette Jackson
  • AAHP294A          Vonda  Richardson
  • AAHP294B
  • AAHP295             Glyen Holmes
  • AAHP296             Pearline Jones
  • AAHP297             Joseph W. Welch & Matthis Harris
  • AAHP298             Ray Rickman
  • AAHP299             Eula Harris
  • AAHP300             Matthis Harris, Arago Welch & Joseph Welch
  • AAHP301             Zelphia Chambers
  • AAHP303             Joseph Welch
  • AAHP304             John Lee
  • AAHP305             Bertha Lee
  • AAHP306             George Abungu
  • AAHP307             Jordon Corbett
  • AAHP308             Leonard & Alonzo Young
  • AAHP309             Jocelyn Carter Ingram
  • AAHP310             Shirley-Jo Tuffs
  • AAHP311             Regennia Williams
  • AAHP312             Hannibal Square Heritage Center Panel: Carol Everett, Eddis Dexter, Ella Dinkins, Eugenie Baylor & Linda Walker
  • AAHP313             Virginia Carrington
  • AAHP314             Arthur Glover
  • AAHP315A           Eddie Jackson
  • AAHP315B
  • AAHP317             Lorene Smith
  • AAHP318             John Due
  • AAHP320             Rachel Watkins
  • AAHP321             “12 Years a Slave” Discussion
  • AAHP322             Wayne Fields discussion
  • AAHP323             Alexandra Jones
  • AAHP324             Peggy Brunache
  • AAHP325             Shawn Fields
  • AAHP326             Shade in the Sunshine State discussion
  • AAHP327             Charles Bryant
  • AAHP328             Mary Bryant
  • AAHP 329            Ocala Hunting and Fishing Club
  • AAHP330             Mary & Van Banks
  • AAHP331             Marva Murray
  • AAHP332             Nathaniel Harris
  • AAHP333             Clara Smith
  • AAHP334             Clenton Taylor
  • AAHP335             Willie Cannion
  • AAHP336             Maya E. Jordan
  • AAHP337             Rose Marshall
  • AAHP338             Angelnetta Durant and Viola Franklin
  • AAHP339             Lois Miller[/right]

back to AAHP Resources

For additional information, contact SPOHP, call the offices at (352) 392-7168, and connect with us online today.